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Map of So<a href=Malia' align='right' hspace='50' vspace='5'>Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean,

wacan oo wanaagsan waxaa mahad is ka leh alleh

  Sidaan wada ognahayba Somaliya marka loo eego wadamada kale ee ku yaal qaarada Africa wuxuu ka mid yahay wadamada dhexe ee aan aad iyo aadka u wawayanay xiligan hada la joogo maxayeelay wadanka kala badh kiis wuxuu raacsan yahay wadamal deriska la ah  sida Kenya iyo Ethopia lakiin sidaa uu yahay baan hadan ku yarayn oo ka wayn yahay wadomo badan oo ku yaal qarada maanta waxaad halak ku arkaysaa wax yaabo badan oo aadan is lahayn waa ku yaaleen somaliya waa Taariikh si fiican looga soo shaqeeyey waxana ka soo qatay websit ka layirahado shaable

 

Soomaaliya.

Dalka Soomaaliya waxa uu ku yaalaa geeska Africa wuxuuna ku fadhiyaa dhul baaxadiisu dhantahay 635.541km2, waxana uu xuduud la wadaagaa Bari waxaa ka xiga Badweynta hindiya, waqooyina waxaa ka xiga Jabuuti, Galbeedna dalka Itoobiya, halka koonfur galbeedna uu ka xigo dalka Kenya.
dalka Soomaaliya waxa uu yahay dalka labaad ee ugu xeebta dheer qaaradda Africa wuxayna leedahay xeeb dhirirkeedu tahay 3333km.
Tirada dadka Soomaaliyeed waxaa lagu qiyaasaa 8,000,000 oo qof.
60% Soomaalidu waa dad reer baadiya ah , 20% waa dad reer magaal ah, 15% waa dad beeralay ah iyo  5% oo ah dad Kaluumayato ah.
khubarada ka faaloota taariikhda dalka Soomaaliya waxa ay sheegeen in erega Soomaaliya uu ka taaganyahay labo eray oo la'isku geeyay, kuwaasi oo kala ah (
Soo-Maal), iyadoo eraga Soo macnihiisa loola jeedo Soco, halka ereyga Maal uu macnihiisu ka soo jeedo Lis.
Marka labadaasi eray la'isku daro waxaa uu noqonayaa (Maal Saca).

Khubarada qaarkood waxa ay sheegaan in magaca Soomaali uu asal ahaan ka soo jeedo ereyga carabiga ee ah (Duu-maa) oo fasir ahaan la macna ah Shacab xoolo badan leh.
Sooyaalka taariikhda qadiimiga ah waxaa iyadana laga helayaa macno kale iyadoo khubaraduna ku doodayaan in ereygaasi uu ka yimid Samaala  oo micnihiisu yahay ninkii waranka Dheeraa.
Samaala ayaa la sheegaa in uu ahaa ab iyo waziirkii ay ka soo farcanmeen dadka Soomaaliyeed (Aw-Samaale).

Taariikh ahaan dalkayagu waxa uu lahaan jiray xadaarad facween waxaana dalkeena loo aqoon jiray magacyo badan sida Dhulkii udgoonaa , Dhulkii eebe iyo Geeska Africa.

Caasimadda dalkeena waa Muqdisho, tan labaadna waa Hargeysa, tan sadaxaadna waa Kismaayo, tan afaraadna waa Burco, halka tan shanaadna waa Baydhabo, goboladii ugu horeeyay ee xornimadiisa qaata dalkeena waxa uu ahaa gobolka Waqooyi waxaana xornimadooda ay qaateen 26kii bishii June sanadii 1960kii halka gobolada kale ee koonfurtana ay xornimadooda qaateen 1-dii bishii Luulyo sanadii 1960kii.
Shirkii gumeestayaasha Africa ee lagu qeybsaday Africa ee ka dhacay Baar-liin 1884-tii ayaa dalka Soomaaliya loogu qeybiyey 5qeybood waxana shantaasi qeybood ay kala ahaayee:

  • Gobolada Waqooyi oo la siiyay gumeestihii Ingiriiska.

  • Gobolada koonfureed oo la siiyay gumeystihii Talyaaniga.

  • Xeebta Soomaaliyeed ee Jabuuti ee loo dhiibay gumeystihii Faransiiska.

  • N.F.D oo iyadana la siiyay dalka Kiiniya.

  • Iyo gobolada  Soomaali galbeed oo gacanta loo geliyay Dawladda Itoobiya.

shantaan gobol waxaa la isku yiraahdaa shanta Soomaaliya taariikhdu markii ay eheyd 27kii bishii June sanadii 1977 ayay Jabuutina xornimadeeda qaadatay, waxaasa wali gacanta gumeestaha ku jira Soomaali galbeed iyo N.F.D.

Hadaba markii ay xurnimada qaateen gobolada Koonfureed sanadii 1960kii waxay ahaayeen lix gobol oo kala ahaa gobolka Banaadir, gobolka Hiiraan, Gobolka Mudug iyo Gobolka Bari sidoo kale waxaa iyana ku soo idarsamay goboladii waqooyi ee iyaguna isla sanadkaas xornimada qaatay waxayna ku soo darsadeen koonfurta lbadii gobol ee xiligaasi gobolada waqooyi la'isku oran jiray, ee gobolka Waqooyi, Galbeed io gobolka Togdheer waxana ay isku noqdeen goboladii jamhuuriyadda sideeda gobol, markii uu kacaankii milatariga ahaa dalka Qabsaday ee la qaaday ololihii horumarinta reer miyiga ee sanadii 1973dii ilaa 1974tii xiligaasoo ay timid baahi ween oo ahayd in la magacaabo gobolo kale markaas waxaa sideedii gobol lagu kordhiyay todobo kale waxayna tirada gobolada dalka noqdeen shan iyo toban gobol Bilowgii sanadii 1980kii waxaa lagu kordhiyay gobolka Jubada dhexe, dabayaaqadii sideetameeyadii ayaa iyana la magacaabay gobolada Sool iyo Awdal xiligaasoo tirada gobolada dalku noqdeen sideed iyo toban gobol.

Shaxda Gobolada iyo Degmooyinka Dalkeena.

  1. Gobolka Banaadir.

Shingaani Hodan Howlwdaag Shibis
Boondheere Yaaqshiid Kaaraan XamarJabjab
Xamarweyne Cabdicasiis Wadajir Waaberi
Wardhiigley Heli waa Dharkiinley Dayniile

Dhaqaalaha gobolka Banaadir waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay Ganacsiga. 
   2.  
Gobolka Shabelada Dhexe.

Jowhar Balcad Cadale
Aadanyabaal    

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay jowhar, dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay Beeraha
  
3.   Gobolka Hiiraan.

Beledweyne Buuloburte Jalalaqsi
Matabaan    

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Beledweyne, dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay xoolaha nool iyo beeraha.

    
4.   Galguduud.

Dh/mareeb Caabudwaaq Ceelbuur
Ceeldheer Cadaado  

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Dhuuso mareb dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay xoolaha nool.


    
5.   Gobolka Mudug

Gaalkacyo Hobyo Jariiban
Xarar dheere. Galdogob Burtinle

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Mudug dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay xoolaha nool.


    
6.   Nugaal.

Garoowe Eyl Sinujiif
Boocane Rabaable  

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Garoowe dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay xoolaha nool.

  7.   Gobolka Bari.

Boosaaso Qandala Iskushuban
Bandarbayla Caluula Qardho

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Boosaaso dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay Ganacsiga iyo Kaluunka.

  8.   Sool.

Laascaanood Xudun Caynabo
Taleex    

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Laascaanood dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay xoolaha nool.

  9.   Sanaag.

Ceerigaabo Laasqoray Ceel afweyn
Baran Buraan  

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Ceeri gaabo, dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay xoolaha nool gaar ahaan ariga.

 10.   Togdheer.

Burco Owd weyne Sheekh
Buuhoodle    

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Burco, dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay xoolaha nool gaar ahaan geela iyo ariga.

  11.   Gobolka waqooyi galbeed.

Hargeyso Berbera Gabiley

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Hargeyso dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay ganacsiga iyo xoolaha nool.

12.   Gobolka Awdal.

Baki Boorame Saylac

Lug haya.

   

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Baki dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay ganacsiga iyo xoolaha nool.

13.   Gobolka Sh/hoose.

Marka Baraawe Qoryooley
Afgooye Wanlaweyn Kurtunwaarey
Sablaale.    

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Marko dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay beeraha iyo xoolaha nool.

14.   Gobolka Bay.

Baydhabo Buurhakaba Diinsoor
Ufurow Qansax dheere Bardaale.

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Baydhabo dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay beeraha iyo xoolaha nool.

15.   Gobolka Gedo.

Garbahaarey Luuq ganaane Doolow
Beled Xawo Ceelwaaq Baardheere.

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Hargeyso dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay Beeraha iyo xoolaha nool.

16.   Gobolka Bakool.

Xudur Waajid Yeed

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Hargeyso dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay ganacsiga iyo xoolaha nool.

17.   Gobolka Jubada Dhexe.

Bu'aale Dajuumo Baardheere
Saakow Jilib  

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Bu'aale dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay Beeraha.

18.   Gobolka Jubada Hoose.

Kismaayo Afmadow Badhaadhe

Gobolkan waxaa magaala madaxdiisu tahay Hargeyso dhaqaalihiisuna waxa uu ku tiirsanyahay ganacsiga iyo xoolaha nool gaar ahaan Lo'da.

Dhererka u dhexeya Gobolada dalka.

Shaxda soo socota ayaa waxa ay muujinaysaa fogaanta u dhexeysa Gobolada dalkeena iyo magaala madaxda.

Xamar 247km Baydhabo Xamar 550km Dhuusomareeb
Xamar 111km Marka Xamar 1600km Hargeysa
Xamar 90km Jowhar Xamar 1220km Laascaanood
Xamar 335km Beledweyne Xamar 925km Garoowe
Xamar 485km Bu'aale Xamar 1505km Boosaaso
Xamar 500km Kismaayo Xamar 1800km Baki
Xamar 430km Xudur Xamar 1340km Burco
Xamar 505km Garbahaarey Xamar 1450km Ciiregaabo
Xamar 750km Gaalkacyo  
Hadaba shaxdan kalena waxa ay qayexeysaa fogaanta ay isu jiraan qaybo ka mid ah magaalooyinka dalkeena Soomaaliiya.
Muqdisho 30km Afgooye   Afgooye 164 Buurhakaba
Buurhakaba 66km Baydhabo   Baydhaba 150km Luuq
Baydhaba 155km Xudur   Luuq  80km Doolow
Luuq 69km Garbahaarey   Garbahaarey 129km Baardheere
Baardheere 195km Baydhaba   Baardheere 260km Jilib
Jilib 114km Kismaayo   Kismaayoq 139km Afmadow
Kismaayo 195km Dhoobley   Muqdisho 113km Marka
Marka 193km Baraawe   Baraawe 168km Jilib
Muqdisho 95km Jowhar   Jowhar 121km Buuloburte
Buuloburte 116km Beledweyne   Beledweyne 45km Feerfeer
Jowhar 140km Cadale   Cadale 185km Ceeldheer
Ceel dheer 162km Ceel buur   Ceel buur 110km Sindago
Sindago 164 Beledweyne   Sindago 220km Gaalkacyo
Gaalkacyo 256km Hobyo   Gaalkacyo 260km Garoowe
Garoowe 219 Eyl   Garoowe 222km Qardho
Qardho 258km Boosaaso   Qardho 221km Bandarbayla
Iskushuban 280km Caluula   Caluula 40km Bareeda
Caluula 105km Baargaal   Garoowe 132km Laascaanood
Laascaanood 141 Ceeldhaab   Ceeldhaab 255km Ceerigaabo
Ceeldhaab 120 Burco   Burco 148km Berbera
Hargeysa 177km Burco   Hargeysa 70km Gebiley
Gebiley 52km Boorama   Boorama 269km Saylac
Saylac 21km Lowyacado   Xudur 115km Yeed
Xudur 242km BuuleBurte        

Kheyraadka Dabiiciga ee Soomaaliya.

Dalkeena waxa uu leeyahay kheyraad fara badan oo aanan halkaan ku soo koobi karin waxaasa ka mid ah kheyraadka dalkeena laga helo:

            Xoolaha la dhaqdo kuwaasoo loo qeybiyo afar qeybood kalana ah Geela Lo'da oo iyagu la'isku yiraaho Ishkin, Idaha iyo Eriga hadii aynu eegno magacyada loogu kala yeero noocyada xoolaha ayaa waxa ay kala yihiin:
            
1. Geela kan lab waxaa loogu yeeraa Rati kan dhadigna Hal marka ay yaryaryihiina waxaa la yiraahdaa Nirig iyo Qurbac.
             2. Lo'da neefka lab waxaa loogu yeeraa Dibi kan dhadigana Sac marka ay yaryaryihiina waxaa loogu yeeraa Wayl iyo Wayl ama Aalo.
              3. Riyo riyaha neefka Lab waxaa lagu magacaabaa Orgi kan dhadigna waxaa lagu magacaabaa Ri marka ay yaryaryihiina waxaa lagu magacaabaa Waxar iyo Waxar ama Maqal.
              4. Ido idaha neefka lab waxaa la yiraahdaa Wan (Sumal) kan dhedigana waxaa la yirahdaa Lax (Sabeen) marka ay yaryaryihina Nayl ama Baraar.

              Dalagyada Soomaalidu Beerato ayaa waxa ay yihiin dalagyo aad u wanaagsan isla markaana aan ka bixin wadamada africa qaarkood waxana shaxda hoos ku qoran ay muujinaysaa magaca dalaga iyo inta uu ku bislaado:

Magaca

inta ay ku bislaato

Galayda 90 beri
Masagada 90beri
Sisinta 90beri
Muuska 180beri
Digirta 80beri
Yaanyada 80beri
Babayga 90beri
Bataatiga 180
Lowska 120
Canbaha 6sano

 Magacyada Geed miroodka ka baxa dalkeena ayaa waxa ay kala yihiin.

Hohob Mareer Gud Dhafaruur Dhuwan Ontoro
Deegaan Dhebi Gob Miracas TukeLalmi Murcood
Kobash Askax Shanfarood Barde Dhamaag Qoone

  Wax soo saarka Badda dalkeena Soomaaliya waxa uu leeyahay labo badood oo kala ah Badda Cas iyo Badweynta Hindiya waana dal ay dhamaantiis ku dharersantahay Bad laga soo biloobo Cirifka Koonfureed ee Raaskambooni ilaa Cirifka Waqooyi ee Raascaseyr, magaalooyinka dhaca xeebaha waxaa ugu caansan saylac, berbera, caluula, boosaaso, iskushuban bandarbayla, hobyo ,muqdisho, marka ,baraawe, kismaayo 
   
Wabiyada dalkeena Dalkan Soomaaliya waxaa mara labo wabi oo kala ah Jubba iyo Shabele waxayna ka yimaadaan dalka Itoobiya waxaana ugu dheer Webiga Shabele oo dhererkiisu uu gaarayo 1500km, waxaase ugu weyn uguna biyo badan webiga Jubba oo dhererkiisu uu gaarayo 800km.
     magaalooyinka ay dalka ka maraan hadaan soo qaadano webiga Shabele wuxuu dalka ka soo galaa xadka uu gobolka Hiiraan la leeyahay dalka Itoobiya meel u dhow magaalada Feer-feer wuxuuna soo maraa magaalyooyinka Beledweyne, Buuloburte, Jowhar, Balcad, Agooye, Jannaale wuxuuna ku dhamaadaa meesha la yiraahdo Dhaytubaako oo u dhexeysa Jilib iyo Shalaanbood, Wabiga Jubba isagu waxa uu dalka ka so galaa Xuduuda uu gobolka Gedo la leeyahay dalka Itoobiya wuxuuna soo maraa magaalooyinka Doolow Luuq Baardheere Bu'aale Jilib, Mareerey Kabsuuma iyo Jamaame wuxuuna ku dhamaadaa oo uu badda kaga darsoomaa meesha la yiraahdo Goobweyn oo Kismaayo u jirta 25km.

Maalmaha dalkeena lagu qadariyo oo la xasuusto ayaa waxaa ka mid ah"
                 1.     26kii Juun 1960kii xornimadii gobolada Waqooyi.
                 2.    
1dii Luulyo 1960kii midoobidii Gobolada waqooyi iyo Koonfur.
                 3.     
1dii luulyo 1960kii xornimadii Gobolada koonfureed.
                 4.     
12ka Abril Aas aaskii calanka iyo maalinta xooga dalka Soomaaliyeed.
                 5.      
8da Maarso maalinta haweenka Soomaaliyeed
                
6.      5tii Octobar 1949kii dagaalkii dhagax tur iyo hanoolaato.
                 7.     
27kii Juun 1977kii xornimadii dalka Jabuuti.
                 8.     
15kii Maajo 1943kii aasaaskii ururka S.Y.L
                 9
.     bishii Ocotobar 18-20 1971kii shirkii ururka midowga Africa ayaa lagu qabtay Xamar.
                10.    20kii bishii 12aad sanadii 1950kii aasaaskii booliska soomaaliyeed
                11.   
21 octobar sanadii 1972dii qoraalkii farta Soomaaliga
                12.   
16kii Febrayo 1974tii Soomaaliya waxay ku biirtay Jaamacadda carabta.
                13. 
  1528-1542kii halgankii Axmed Gurey ee Itoobiya iyo Bortaqiiska.
                14.   
1900-1921juu Gakgabkii Sayid Max'ed Cabdulle Xasan ee Ingiriiska.
                15.    
1da April 1950kii heshiiskii Q.M iyo talyaaniga ee xornimo gaarsiinta Soomaaliya.
                16.   
Bishii Luulyo 1960kii waxaa dalka madaxweyne u noqday Aadan Cabdulle Cismaan.
                17.   
Bishii Juun 1967dii waxaa dalka madaxweyne u noqday Cabdi Rashiid Cali Sharma'arke.
                18.   
bishii Octobar 1969kii waxaa dalka madaxweyne u noqday Max'ed Siyaad Barre
                19.  
Warshadii kaluunka Laasqoray waxaa la aasaasay 1970kii
                20.  
Warshadda dharka Balcad waxaa la aasaasay sanadii 1968dii
                21.  
Warshadda sonkorta Jowhar waxaa la aasaasay 1962dii
                22.   
Warshadda Caanaha Xanar waxaa la dhisay 1966kii
                23.    
Warshadda Hilibka ee Kismaayo waxaa la dhisay 1973kii.

Dhaqanka iyo Hiddaha
  • Tacliinta Soomalida(1)
  • Tacliinta Soomalida(2)
  • Tacliinta Soomalida(3)
  • Dhaqanka Soomaalida
  • la sii soco wixii soo kordha oo waa ku la soo socdonayaa

     


    DA HISTORY OF SOMALIA

    Roundel

    [Aircraft marking] by Zeljko Heimer, 20 Jan 2003

    Album des Pavillons (flagbook published by the French Navy, often updated and corrected and therefore reliable) shows the Somali roundel as a blue disc with a white five-pointed star, the points of the star nearly touching the border of the disc.
    This of course does not prove that there are still aircrafts showing this roundel. Encyclopaedia Universalis Yearbook says: "Armed forces: Tribal war since 1991."
    Ivan Sache, 1 Feb 20002.

    Aircraft Marking.
    Roundel based on the flag - blue with white star.
    Zeljko Heimer, 20 Jan 2003

    Flagchange?

    Did the flag of Somalia undergo a flag change?  I received 3 of these VEX IV flag cards, and on one of these cards, it shows a flag of somalia which features the star in  a triangle, set against a light blue background;  in addidtion, there are also 3 striipes consisting of green-white-orange.  Does this flag sound familiar, or is this is an older flag?
    Russell Mah, 3 Nov 2003

    I cannot identify the "star set in a triangle", but the green-white-orange sounds very like the 1996 flag of the Somaliland Republic  (formerly British Somaliland and de facto independent)?  This is a vertical tricolour of green-white-red with a black star in the centre and the Islamic statement of faith in white on the green stripe.
    Christopher Southworth, 4 Nov 2003

    The flag you describe sounds like that of the Somali National Regional state  flag, which is part of Ethiopia, and not to be confused with Somalia.
    Martin Grieve, 5 Nov 2003

    Flag of Somali

    The flag is a green-white-dark red horizontal tricolour with a light blue triangle at the hoist charged by a white star. Jaume posted a very close image, but it isn't quite as the image at the ethiopian parliament site because apparently the star is supposed to be rotated so that it points to the fly. Jaume also says that "[the flag of the] Somali state seems to be based in the Western Somalia Liberation Front flag adopted when were merged WSLF and SALF (flag is a mixture of both)". FOTW is all but clear as to what movement predated what, but to me it seems pretty clear that this flag is an evolution of the *Somalia-Abo Liberation Front*, not the Western Somalia Liberation Front. Also, I can't help noticing the great similarities between this flag and the flag of Somaliland, as we all know a self-proclaimed state in the old british Somalia (just a green-white-red tricolour with star and sahada). It could even be a sort of "conciliation flag" between the two Somalias, due to the white star on blue at the hoist.
    Jorge Candeias, 19 December 1999

    Previous Flags of Somali

    1 2

    Green and red vertically divided flag with white star was reported in use by Somali movements in 1975. In 1982 a variation of black in place of green was reported.
    Jaume Oll├Г╞Т├ЖтАЩ├ГтАа├втВмтДв├Г╞Т├втВм┼б├ГтАЪ├В┬й

    Historical notes

    Concerning the Ethiopian regional state of Somali, it's worth mentioning (although no special flags were used for it) that the Ogaden was administered, following the defeat of Italian forces in East Africa, as part of the British occupation of Somali territories, separate from Ethiopia.
    Although the postal administration differentiated between the Somaliland Protectorate and the rest of the region (Ethiopian Ogaden and former Italian Somalia), the entire Somali region was under a single administration until Somalia was handed back to Italian control.
    In the 1960s, newly independent Somalia tried to take the Ogaden, but was repulsed by Ethiopian forces.
    Mike Oettle, 2 January 2002

    1576 map image


    by Jorge Candeias

    The above image is from a map made by Fern?o Vaz Dourado in 1576. The flag is placed in southern Somalia, near the place where today lies Mogadiscio. A triangular flag, dark red over dark yellow, with a white crescent at the hoist, vertically centered.
    Jorge Candeias, 1 Sep 1999

    I don't have any definite information as to the identity of the cities whose flags were shown on the chart, but The New Atlas of African History by G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville provides some possibilities. It shows the leading ports on the Indian Ocean shore of Africa during the 15th and 16th centuries, the above could be Mogadishu
    Edward Smith, 1 Sep 1999

     

     
     

     

      Taariikhda

    Sooyaalka Siyaasadeed Ee SADE By Maxamed Maxamud Salaad

    Yaa Soomali Aheey By Cabdiraxman Abtidoon

    Abdirisaaq Haaji Hussein Vs. Ahmed Raage By Hussein Hagi M Elbur

    Abdirisaaq Haaji Hussein Vs. Ahmed Raage By Hussein Hagi M Elbur

    No single problem, No simple solution  By Ali Malaaq

    Future Map Of Somalia By Bashir Adam (Koofurow)

    I will Be The President In Somalia By Aweys A Osman

     

    lacagaha somaliya.

    wacan oowanagsan mahad alleh baa is ka leh

    lacagaha soomaalia iyo taariikh doda siday isku kala badalayeen waxaa halaka ku diyaar san ee firi .

    Geelaba xasuusbaa lagu xerageeya bal firi hada lacagana ina aad wax ka xasuusto ama ay ku soo xasuusiso wayo waayo.

    P-13a, 10 Somali, 1950 

    P-13a, 10 Somali, 1950

    P-13a, 10 Somali, 1950 

    P-13a, 10 Somali, 1950

    P-14a, 20 Somali, 1950            

    P-14a, 20 Somali, 1950

    P-16, 5 Somali, 1951       

    P-16, 5 Somali, 1951

    P-1a, 5 Schellini = 5 Shillings, 1962   

    P-1a, 5 Schellini = 5 Shillings, 1962

    P-1s, 5 Scellini = 5 Shillings, 1962     

    P-1s, 5 Scellini = 5 Shillings, 1962

    P-2a, 10 Schellini = 10 Shillings, 1962  

    P-2a, 10 Schellini = 10 Shillings, 1962

    P-3, 20 Scellini = 20 Shillings, 1962  

    P-3, 20 Scellini = 20 Shillings, 1962

    P-5a, 5 Scellini = 5 Shillings, 1966  

    P-5a, 5 Scellini = 5 Shillings, 1966

     

    P-10, 10 Scellini = 10 Shillings, 1968 

    P-10, 10 Scellini = 10 Shillings, 1968

    P-12, 100 Scellini = 100 Shillings, 1968  

    P-12, 100 Scellini = 100 Shillings, 1968

    P-13, 5 Scellini = 5 Shillings, 1971  

    P-13, 5 Scellini = 5 Shillings, 1971

    P-15a, 20 Scellini = 20 Shillings, 1971     

    P-15a, 20 Scellini = 20 Shillings, 1971

    P-15a, 20 Scellini = 20 Shillings, 1971  

    P-15a, 20 Scellini = 20 Shillings, 1971

    P-17, 5 Shilin, 1975  

    P-17, 5 Shilin, 1975

    P-18, 10 Shilin, 1975      

    P-18, 10 Shilin, 1975

    P-19, 20 Shilin, 1975 

    P-19, 20 Shilin, 1975

    P-20, 100 Shilin, 1975 

    P-20, 100 Shilin, 1975

    P-21, 5 Shilin, 1978 

    P-21, 5 Shilin, 1978

    P-22, 10 Shilin = 10 Shillings, 1978   

    P-22, 10 Shilin = 10 Shillings, 1978

    P-23, 20 Shilin = 20 Shillings, 1978   

    P-23, 20 Shilin = 20 Shillings, 1978

    P-24, 100 Shilin = 100 Shillings, 1978    

    P-24, 100 Shilin = 100 Shillings, 1978

    P-26, 10 Shilin 1980

    P-26, 10 Shilin 1980

    P-31, 5 Shilin 1983-87

    P-31, 5 Shilin 1983-87

    P-31a, 5 Shilin, 1983

    P-31a, 5 Shilin, 1983

    P-31b, 5 Shilin = 5 Shillings, 1986

    P-31b, 5 Shilin = 5 Shillings, 1986

    P-32a, 10 Shilin, 1983

    P-32a, 10 Shilin, 1983

    P-32b, 10 Shilin, 1986

    P-32b, 10 Shilin, 1986

    P-32c, 10 Shilin = 10 Shillings, 1987

    P-32c, 10 Shilin = 10 Shillings, 1987

    P-33a, 20 Shilin, 1983

    P-33a, 20 Shilin, 1983

    P-33b, 20 Shilin, 1986

    P-33b, 20 Shilin, 1986

    P-33c, 20 Shilin, 1987

    P-33c, 20 Shilin, 1987

    P-34, 50 Shilin 1983-89

    P-34, 50 Shilin 1983-89

    P-34a, 50 Shilin, 1983

    P-34a, 50 Shilin, 1983

    P-34b, 50 Shilin, 1987

    P-34b, 50 Shilin, 1987

    P-35, 100 Shilin 1983-89

    P-35, 100 Shilin 1983-89

    P-35a, 100 Shilin, 1983

    P-35a, 100 Shilin, 1983

    P-35b, 100 Shilin = 100 Shillings, 1987

    P-35b, 100 Shilin = 100 Shillings, 1987

    P-35c, 100 Shilin, 1988

    P-35c, 100 Shilin, 1988

    P-36, 500 Shilin 1989-90

    P-36, 500 Shilin 1989-90


    P-36, 500 Shilin, 1989

    P-36, 500 Shilin, 1989

    P-36, 500 Shilin, 1990

    P-36, 500 Shilin, 1990

    P-36, 500 Shilin, 1996

    P-36, 500 Shilin, 1996

    P-36, 500 Shilin, 1996

    P-36, 500 Shilin, 1996

    P-37, 1,000 Shilin 1990

    P-37, 1,000 Shilin 1990

    P-37a, 1,000 Shilin, 1990

    P-37a, 1,000 Shilin, 1990

    P-37b, 1,000 Shilin, 1996

    P-37b, 1,000 Shilin, 1996

    P-R1, 20 N Shilin, 1991

    P-R1, 20 N Shilin, 1991

    P-R2, 50 N Shilin, 1991  P-R2, 50 N Shilin, 1991



     

     

     

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    HISTORY

    Government

    halakan ka akhriso  dastuurkii la qoray 1960 gii 1960 Somali Constitution

    Between Jan. 1991 and Aug. 2000, Somalia had no working government. A fragile parliamentary government was formed Aug. 22, 2000.

    HISTORY
    Early history traces the development of the Somali people to an Arab sultanate, which was founded in the seventh century A.D. by Koreishite immigrants from Yemen. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portuguese traders landed in present Somali territory and ruled several coastal towns. The sultan of Oman and Zanzibar subsequently took control of these towns and their surrounding territory.

    Somalia's modern history began in the late l9th century, when various European powers began to trade and establish themselves in the area. The British East India Company's desire for unrestricted harbor facilities led to the conclusion of treaties with the sultan of Tajura as early as 1840. It was not until 1886, however, that the British gained control over northern Somalia through treaties with various Somali chiefs who were guaranteed British protection. British objectives centered on safeguarding trade links to the east and securing local sources of food and provisions for its coaling station in Aden. The boundary between Ethiopia and British Somaliland was established in 1897 through treaty negotiations between British negotiators and King Menelik.

    During the first two decades of this century, British rule was challenged through persistent attacks led by Mohamed Abdullah. A long series of intermittent engagements and truces ended in 1920 when British warplanes bombed Abdullah's stronghold at Taleex. Although Abdullah was defeated as much by rival Somali factions as by British forces, he was lauded as a popular hero and stands as a major figure of national identity to some Somalis.

    In 1885, Italy obtained commercial advantages in the area from the sultan of Zanzibar and in 1889 concluded agreements with the sultans of Obbia and Aluula, who placed their territories under Italy's protection. Between 1897 and 1908, Italy made agreements with the Ethiopians and the British that marked out the boundaries of Italian Somaliland. The Italian Government assumed direct administration, giving the territory colonial status.

    Italian occupation gradually extended inland. In 1924, the Jubaland Province of Kenya, including the town and port of Kismayo, was ceded to Italy by the United Kingdom. The subjugation and occupation of the independent sultanates of Obbia and Mijertein, begun in 1925, were completed in 1927. In the late 1920s, Italian and Somali influence expanded into the Ogaden region of eastern Ethiopia. Continuing incursions climaxed in 1935 when Italian forces launched an offensive that led to the capture of Addis Ababa and the Italian annexation of Ethiopia in 1936.

    Following Italy's declaration of war on the United Kingdom in June 1940, Italian troops overran British Somaliland and drove out the British garrison. In 1941, British forces began operations against the Italian East African Empire and quickly brought the greater part of Italian Somaliland under British control. From 1941 to 1950, while Somalia was under British military administration, transition toward self-government was begun through the establishment of local courts, planning committees, and the Protectorate Advisory Council. In 1948 Britain turned the Ogaden and neighboring Somali territories over to Ethiopia.

    In Article 23 of the 1947 peace treaty, Italy renounced all rights and titles to Italian Somaliland. In accordance with treaty stipulations, on September 15, 1948, the Four Powers referred the question of disposal of former Italian colonies to the UN General Assembly. On November 21, 1949, the General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending that Italian Somaliland be placed under an international trusteeship system for 10 years, with Italy as the administering authority, followed by independence for Italian Somaliland. In 1959, at the request of the Somali Government, the UN General Assembly advanced the date of independence from December 2 to July 1, 1960.

    Meanwhile, rapid progress toward self-government was being made in British Somaliland. Elections for the Legislative Assembly were held in February 1960, and one of the first acts of the new legislature was to request that the United Kingdom grant the area independence so that it could be united with Italian Somaliland when the latter became independent. The protectorate became independent on June 26, 1960; five days later, on July 1, it joined Italian Somaliland to form the Somali Republic.

    In June 1961, Somalia adopted its first national constitution in a countrywide referendum, which provided for a democratic state with a parliamentary form of government based on European models. During the early post-independence period, political parties reflected clan loyalties, which contributed to a basic split between the regional interests of the former British-controlled north and the Italian-controlled south. There also was substantial conflict between pro-Arab, pan-Somali militants intent on national unification with the Somali-inhabited territories in Ethiopia and Kenya and the "modernists," who wished to give priority to economic and social development and improving relations with other African countries. Gradually, the Somali Youth League, formed under British auspices in 1943, assumed a dominant position and succeeded in cutting across regional and clan loyalties. Under the leadership of Mohamed Ibrahim Egal, prime minister from 1967 to 1969, Somalia greatly improved its relations with Kenya and Ethiopia. The process of party-based constitutional democracy came to an abrupt end, however, on October 21, 1969, when the army and police, led by Maj. Gen. Mohamed Siad Barre, seized power in a bloodless coup.

    Following the coup, executive and legislative power was vested in the 20-member Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC), headed by Maj. Gen. Siad Barre as president. The SRC pursued a course of "scientific socialism" that reflected both ideological and economic dependence on the Soviet Union. The government instituted a national security service, centralized control over information, and initiated a number of grassroots development projects. Perhaps the most impressive success was a crash program that introduced an orthography for the Somali language and brought literacy to a substantial percentage of the population.

    The SRC became increasingly radical in foreign affairs, and in 1974, Somalia and the Soviet Union concluded a treaty of friendship and cooperation. As early as 1972, tensions began increasing along the Somali-Ethiopian border; these tensions heightened after the accession to power in Ethiopia in 1973 of the Mengistu Hailemariam regime, which turned increasingly toward the Soviet Union. In the mid-1970s, the Western Somali Liberation Front (WSLF) began guerrilla operations in the Ogaden region of Ethiopia. Fighting increased, and in July 1977, the Somali National Army (SNA) crossed into the Ogaden to support the insurgents. The SNA moved quickly toward Harer, Jijiga, and Dire Dawa, the principal cities of the region. Subsequently, the Soviet Union, Somalia's most important source of arms, embargoed weapons shipments to Somalia. The Soviets switched their full support to Ethiopia, with massive infusions of Soviet arms and 10,000-15,000 Cuban troops. In November 1977, President Siad Barre expelled all Soviet advisers and abrogated the friendship agreement with the U.S.S.R. In March 1978, Somali forces retreated into Somalia; however, the WSLF continues to carry out sporadic but greatly reduced guerrilla activity in the Ogaden. Such activities also were subsequently undertaken by another dissident group, the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF).

    Following the 1977 Ogaden war, President Barre looked to the West for international support, military equipment, and economic aid. The United States and other Western countries traditionally were reluctant to provide arms because of the Somali Government's support for insurgency in Ethiopia. In 1978, the United States reopened the U.S. Agency for International Development mission in Somalia. Two years later, an agreement was concluded that gave U.S. forces access to military facilities in Somalia. In the summer of 1982, Ethiopian forces invaded Somalia along the central border, and the United States provided two emergency airlifts to help Somalia defend its territorial integrity.

    From 1982 to 1990 the United States viewed Somalia as a partner in defense. Somali officers of the National Armed Forces were trained in U.S. military schools in civilian as well as military subjects. Within Somalia, Siad Barre's regime confronted insurgencies in the northeast and northwest, whose aim was to overthrow his government. By 1988, Siad Barre was openly at war with sectors of his nation. At the President's order, aircraft from the Somali National Air Force bombed the cities in the northwest province, attacking civilian as well as insurgent targets. The warfare in the northwest sped up the decay already evident elsewhere in the republic. Economic crisis, brought on by the cost of anti-insurgency activities, caused further hardship as Siad Barre and his cronies looted the national treasury.

    By 1990, the insurgency in the northwest was largely successful. The army dissolved into competing armed groups loyal to former commanders or to clan-tribal leaders. The economy was in shambles, and hundreds of thousands of Somalis fled their homes. In 1991, Siad Barre and forces loyal to him fled the capital; he later died in exile in Nigeria. In the same year, Somaliland declared itself independent of the rest of Somalia, with its capital in Hargeisa. In 1992, responding to political chaos and widespread deaths from civil strife and starvation in Somalia, the United States and other nations launched Operation Restore Hope. Led by the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), the operation was designed to create an environment in which assistance could be delivered to Somalis suffering from the effects of dual catastrophes--one manmade and one natural. UNITAF was followed by the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM). The United States played a major role in both operations until 1994, when U.S. forces withdrew.

    The prevailing chaos in much of Somalia after 1991 contributed to growing influence by various Islamic groups, including al-Tabliq, al-Islah (supported by Saudi Arabia), and Al-Ittihad Al-Islami (Islamic Unity). These groups, which are among the main non-clan-based forces in Somalia, share the goal of establishing an Islamic state. They differ in their approach; in particular, Al-Ittihad supports the use of violence to achieve that goal and has claimed responsibility for terrorist acts. In the mid-1990s, Al-Ittihad came to dominate territory in Puntland as well as central Somalia near Gedo. It was forcibly expelled from these localities by Puntland forces as well as Ethiopian attacks in the Gedo region. Since that time, Al-Ittihad has adopted a longer term strategy based on integration into local communities and establishment of Islamic schools, courts, and relief centers.

    After the attack on the United States of September 11, 2001, Somalia gained greater international attention as a possible base for terrorism--a concern that became the primary element in U.S. policy toward Somalia. The United States and other members of the anti-terrorism coalition examined a variety of short- and long-term measures designed to cope with the threat of terrorism in and emanating from Somalia. Economic sanctions were applied to Al-Ittihad and to the Al-Barakaat group of companies, based in Dubai, which conducted currency exchanges and remittances transfers in Somalia. The United Nations also took an increased interest in Somalia, including proposals for an increased UN presence and for strengthening a 1992 arms embargo.

    KUR KU LABO


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    Ku naso nasteex dont 4 get 2 sign my guest book byee